In the mineral classification, platinum group element minerals are natural platinum subfamilies, including natural elemental minerals of lanthanum, cerium, palladium and platinum. They are widely associated with each other to form a series of isomorphous hybrid crystals, and a series of isomorphous mixed crystals are formed. The metals smelted from the platinum group element minerals are palladium, rhodium, iridium, platinum, and the like.
Platinum and palladium are the two minerals with the smallest reserves in the platinum group. The metallurgical properties of the two metals are quite similar. Because they are equally rare and similar in use, they are often used as substitutes in various applications. In the international precious metals spot and futures trading market, there are only four varieties of gold, platinum, palladium and silver.
Palladium: The symbol Pd is mainly made from natural smelting. The color is silvery white, the appearance is similar to platinum, and the metallic luster. The melting point is 1555 Â° C, the hardness is 4-4.5, and the relative density is 12. Lighter than platinum, it has strong ductility and hardness is slightly harder than platinum (hardness "Mohs" palladium 4.8, platinum 4.3). It is chemically stable, insoluble in organic acids, cold sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid, but soluble in nitric acid and aqua regia. It is not easy to oxidize and lose luster under normal conditions.
Although international palladium prices are cheaper than platinum, historically, international palladium prices have been higher than platinum prices of about 100 yuan / gram (on January 26, 2001, the international palladium price was as high as 1094 US dollars / ounce).
Palladium is one of the rarest precious metals in the world. Only a few countries such as Russia and South Africa produce in the world, and the total annual output is less than 5% of gold.
Due to the unique chemical and physical properties of palladium, the international jewellery industry has made it difficult to process jewellery. It is easy to splash during smelting and the gold loss is large. Therefore, the domestic jewellery industry is rarely used to make processed jewellery. However, due to the recent mastery of the performance of foreign jewellery processing industry, a small amount of palladium has been processed, making it a jewellery and decorative art, and gradually forming a fashion trend. The international stamp of palladium jewelry is the word Pd or palladium, and is represented by the thousandth digit of purity. For example, Pd950 indicates that the purity is 950â€°, and the specifications of palladium jewelry are marked with Pd950, Pd900 and Pd750.
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