Introduction to textiles (4)

(31)Colored Spot
Appearance: The surface of the fabric presents a large area of ​​other color pollution without a certain shape.
1. Contamination of the fabric in contact with dyed fabrics of different colors when wet. If the color difference is not the same, it is more obvious.
2. The appliance has not been thoroughly washed during processing or handling.
(32) Scum Spot
Appearance: The surface of the fabric has foam residue attached, and after drying, it becomes a trace of a large piece or a thick strip of white color.
Causes: 1. The dyeing liquid has more foam and adheres to the cloth surface. Mostly due to improper use of dispersants and additives.
2. The reducing liquid has a lot of foam, especially when it is dyed with an anthraquinone dye.
3. In the ** phenol coloring solution, if it contains impurities which cannot be diazotized, foam scum will be formed.
(33) Tarring Strining
Appearance: Aggregation occurs between dyes and dyes and auxiliaries during dyeing, which makes the dyes poorly dissolved. After dyeing, there is a striated or short strip of darker color on the cloth surface.
Causes: 1. The dye is dissolved, the dispersion is poor, or the dye is mixed with other chemicals, and the hardness of the dyeing water is too high.
2. The combination of dyes and additives is not suitable, or the timing and order of additives are not appropriate.

34) Roller contamination.

Appearance: During the dyeing and finishing process, the cloth is polluted on the cloth surface due to the uncleanness of the cylinder surface, such as oil, chemicals, dyes and other pollutants. The shape is mostly small, and there is a certain distance between the two pollutions.
Causes: 1. The guide roller is stuck with oil.
2. The pressure roller is adhered to a tar-like lake or a dirt such as short fibers which are detached from the fabric.
3. The cylinder of the drying is sticky with oil and dirt.
(35) Chemicals Staining
Appearance: The surface of the fabric is a bit like, the sheet is faded, polluted or deteriorated.
Cause: Formed by chemicals that should not be used to penetrate into the fabric.
(36) Dyeing Stop Mark
Appearance: along the latitudinal or transverse direction of the fabric, there is a trace of 2 from 10 cm wide, which is darker or lighter than the normal color, and has a watermark on both sides.
During the normal operation period of the machine, when the power is suddenly stopped due to power failure, rolling or other mechanical failure, the fabric is clamped between the two rolls, which occurs when the dyeing liquid or the suction reducing liquid is pressed.
(37) Appearance of the stain: The finished fabric has been packaged, and the cloth has a deeper spot of the same color when opened.
The dyed and finished fabric is sealed in a sealed package. Due to the condensation of vaporized water vapor, the dye and processing agent which are weaker in wet fastness will move to form a spotted stain.
(38) The fuzzy appearance of the pattern: the printed pattern lines are not clear enough, so that the pattern has a fuzzy feeling.
This type of fabric occurs mostly in roller prints. This type of flaw can be caused by poorly printed cylinders and too little blade pressure.
(39) Off-print appearance: The pattern printed in two or more colors failed to follow the original design and was combined to cause deviation or full-bottom printing.
Cause: When printing two or more patterns, the position of the plate and the plate are not exactly aligned.
(40) Desiccated appearance: The original design pattern, some or all of which are not printed.
1. The printing paste in the roller of the roller printing machine is used up, not added in time, or the automatic feeding equipment is faulty.
2. Pumping failure in the Luo Dali printing machine.

41) The appearance of the printed broken line: the pattern of the printed lines, the pattern is occasionally interrupted.
1. Because the pattern is too thin, the depth of the roller printing plate is not enough, the Luo Dali version of the hole is too much, the printing paste is not easy to pass.
2. The viscosity of the prepared printing paste is high.
(42) Appearance of printed crease: On the surface of printed fabric, the area of ​​the shuttle or the strip in the longitudinal or longitudinal direction is not printed.
Cause: The fabric surface is wrinkled and overlapped during printing, and the covered part is not printed with a pattern.
(43) Appearance of the plug plate: The surface of the printed fabric, the pattern with a small dot-shaped area could not be printed, or printed and punctured.
Most occur in the layout or the Luo Dali printing, the sticky mass in the printing paste, attached to the printing plate, blocking the passage of the printing paste.
(44) Appearance of the color: The printed pattern is not sharp enough, and there is a phenomenon of crossing the pattern.
Causes: 1. The viscosity of the printing paste is not enough.
2. The two-color printing paste overlaps.
(45) Printed pulp tube pollution appearance: The white-printed fabric is polluted by a very small amount of printing paste, which occurs mostly in the rollerized fabric.
1. The printed roller has a mirror surface that is not easy to adhere to the printing paste.
2. The scraper is in poor contact with the printing cylinder, or the scraper is not often worn, which is not sharp enough. Black or darker patterns on white are most likely to occur.
(46) Scraper appearance: The warp or longitudinal direction of the printed fabric has a single color trace of the head and tail. In the wider ones, it is shown that the central part is colorless, and disappears from the deepest and becomes shallower on both sides.
There is occasional agglomeration or agglomeration in the printing paste, which is pressed by the blade of the roller printing machine and slides over part of the circumference of the printing cylinder.
(47) Appearance of printed cable: The fabric printed on the roller, printed on the cloth surface, prints all the thin lines on one or more non-printing cylinders along the warp or longitudinal direction of the fabric.
The printing drum engraving is not well-formed, and the groove of the groove is damaged by the strong scraping of the blade. Or the printing paste is mixed with hard tiny debris, and the printing cylinder is scratched by the groove.
(48) Appearance of the trailing tail: The fabric printed with dots on the roller is dotted on the long side of the fabric along the long side of the fabric, so that some of the edges are not neat.
The pulp is too heavy when printed. The tension between the cloth and the cloth is uneven. The pile of fabric surface accumulates on the scraper.
(49) Printed jumper appearance: The pattern of the printed fabric varies along the long direction of the fabric, and the color of the wave is changed.
Cause: The blade installation and pressurization of the roller printing machine are not suitable.
(50) Poor appearance of the plate: The continuous pattern of the printed fabric, in the part where the plate is joined, does not just coincide, and occurs mostly in the layout printing fabric.
Causes: 1. The plate used for printing is bad.
2. The pre-printing version of the pre-printing plate is not precisely controlled.

(51) The bottom cloth seam is polluted. Appearance: The pattern of the printed fabric has a trace of extremely blurred pattern along the width direction of the fabric, but the degree of blurring is not uniform.
The bottom fabric used for the roller printing is in a ring shape, and the seam is thick due to overlap, and it is easy to suck more water, and it is still wet than the general cloth after drying. When it is laminated with the printed fabric, the printed fabric is wetted, and the printed printing paste is infiltrated and spread.
(52) Printing Stop Mark
Appearance: The pattern of printed fabric is along the width direction of the fabric, and there is a trace of the mixed width of the printing paste of about 5 to 15 cm in full width, without the pattern of the pattern.
When the printing machine stops running, the printing roller or the roller is not raised immediately, and continues to press on the cloth surface, so that excessive printing paste penetrates into the cloth.
(53) Appearance of water rolling marks: On the surface of dyed or printed fabrics, there are traces of light dots in the form of dots or larger areas. The edges of the traces tend to be deeper than the central part.
Fabrics that have not been reprocessed after dyeing or printing. During storage, due to the condensation of water vapor in the plant, falling on the fabric, the water droplets will undergo significant discoloration, which will be dried and cannot be restored to the original color. This is because the water droplets are combined with the dye in the form of crystal water. If the iron is dried at a high temperature, it may return to its original color. Cellulose fiber fabrics are dyed with an anthraquinone dye, which is most pronounced when such water scars occur.
(54) Appearance of color spots: The color of the fabric after the bottoming and dyeing or printing, after the color treatment, has a lighter and irregular plaque.
1. ** The proportion of phenol dye base solution and color liquid concentration is improper.
2. The temperature of drying after the bottoming is too high.
3. The reducing agent used for continuous dyeing is incompletely dissolved.
4. During the hot steaming process, the air in the steamer is not completely removed, so the fabric is in contact with the air.
5. During the hot steaming process, the temperature in the steamer is not uniform.
6. The oxidation of the dye occurs incompletely.
7. After dyeing or printing, the fabric is directly exposed to sunlight before color development.
(55) Resin spot appearance: Finished fabric processed by resin, which has dried resin spots on the cloth surface. Depending on the glossy reflection, the touch feels smooth and stiff.
In the resin processing process, the resin is not fully dissolved uniformly, and the fabric passes through the resin slurry tank, adheres to the cloth surface, and is pressed by a roll to form a sheet tightly adhered to the cloth surface.
(56) Appearance of surface resin: The finished product processed by resin, the resin floats on the surface of the cloth, and the fingernails are gently stroked to produce a strip of scratches.
Cause: When the resin is processed, the resin suction rate is too large, and the temperature at which drying starts is too high.
(57) Appearance of the hair ball: the finished fabric processed by the resin, the phenomenon of raising the ball on the cloth surface. Wool fabrics, polyester staple fibers, and blends with polyester staple fibers are more likely to occur.
Causes: 1. The fabric still has a large amount of hairiness on the surface before the resin is processed.
2. In the resin processing, no anti-pilling agent or a suitable smoothing agent is added to the resin liquid.
(58) Appearance of split yarn: weft knitted fabric, in which a row of loops is pulled away and tends to be straight.
Weft-knitted fabrics, in the case of shaping or resin processing, the direction of the cloth is wrong, resulting in a row of loops being straightened.
(59) The appearance of the cloth surface is bright: the cloth surface is too flat, and there is a non-desired light, which occurs mostly in chemical fiber knitted fabrics.
Cause: The tension applied to the fabric is too large during resin processing.
(60) Uneven appearance of the cloth surface: The fabric with a full width of about 1 yard is flattened on a platform, and the cloth body has a phenomenon of unevenness, which occurs mostly in the weft-woven fabric.
The shape or resin processing effect is not good, and the vertical and horizontal shrinkage of the fabric varies.

(61) Poor elasticity Appearance: The stretchable knitted fabric, after being stretched slightly in the longitudinal direction, cannot be restored to its original shape and exhibits wrinkles.
1. Filament used for weaving, the crimping fastness is poor.
2. When setting or resin processing, the set temperature is too high, or the fabric is heated by high temperature for too long, so that the processed yarn in the fabric loses partial recovery.
(62) Paper Like
Appearance: The fabric surface is smooth and slightly stiff, less stretchable, like paper.
The chemical filamentary fiber used as the fabric has a very low shrinkage rate in boiling water, for example, only 2 to 3%, so that during the processing of the fabric, it cannot be fully shrunk, so that the fabric has a paper feel.
4. The reason for the generation is difficult to belong to and the professional processor
(1) oil warp (2) oil weft (3) oil yarn
(4) Oil stains (5) Water stains (6) Friction marks (Chafe Mark)
(7) Hole (8) Crease (9) Uneven hair loss
(10) Hair removal (11) ripple
(1) Appearance of oil: In the fabric, the warp yarn is contaminated by oil and the like in a single section.
The weft yarn is impregnated with mechanical lubricating oil before weaving, when weaving, winding or wefting.
(2) Appearance of oil weft: A single section of weft yarn in the fabric is contaminated by grease and the like.
When weaving, the weft yarn is impregnated with mechanical lubricating oil during the shaking, winding or weft.
(3) Appearance of oil yarn: The yarn in the knitted fabric is contaminated by oil and the like in a single section.
Cause: It is contaminated by grease or the like during winding or during transportation.
(4) Oil stain appearance: the original cloth or the finished cloth has oily materials with different rolling and sheet sizes.
Causes: 1. Splashing into lubricating oil during weaving or printing and finishing.
2. It is contaminated by oil and fat during transportation.
(5) Water-stained appearance: The cloth surface of the fabric or the finished cloth has traces of natural air-drying after being impregnated with water.
Causes: 1. The fabric or finished fabric is impregnated with water.
2. Oil stains on the fabric, oil latitude, or oil stains on the fabric and the finished fabric, traces of residue after washing.
(6) Friction marks (Chafe Mark)
Appearance: During the processing, the fabric is rubbed and the fabric is different in gloss, hue, and structure.
Causes: 1. During the processing, the fabric is transported and placed under accidental friction.
2. When dyeing with Wenqi machine, the elliptical wheel and the cloth slide.
3. In the various processing machines, the friction of the rough surface.
(7) The appearance of the hole: the cloth surface of the woven fabric or the finished fabric, and the hole formed by the warp and the weft yarn being cut off.
Cause: A collision with a sharp object during the transportation or storage period. Use hand fishing when manpower is moved.
(8) Appearance of crease: There is a fold of the cloth surface, and the convex and concave are not flat into a groove, which is wider and not thin. The tension applied is flat and disappears, often occurring in the direction of the length of the cloth and the beginning and end of a piece of cloth.
1. When the fabric is folded into a crepe, the cloth surface is not flat. When packed by a hydraulic press, the applied pressure is too large.
2. There are wrinkles in the indirect seams of the pre-treatment works.
3. When the pre-treatment project was put into the cloth, the cloth spreader did not fully carry out the cloth spread, and the fabric was too much force when entering the cloth.
4. In the pre-treatment project, the guide rollers in the machine washing tank are not parallel or curved.
5. In the pre-treatment project, the bending cloth opening roller before the pressure roller of the machine is too large or too small, and the peripheral surface of the bending cloth is worn. Before the cloth roller enters the pressure roller, the full width is not fully flattened.
6. When using a rotary cylinder dryer cloth, the fabric is wrinkled and wrapped around the cylinder.
7. When the fabric is widened or shaped, the resulting crease is not flattened.
(9) Uneven appearance of fluffing: fleece fabric, corduroy, velvet, towel and other raised fabrics, the length of hair tufts or loops, uneven density.
Causes: 1. The fabric has wrinkles when the hair is pulled, or the tension of the fabric is uneven.
2. Corduroy and velvet shearing are not controlled.
3. When the towel is woven, the loops formed by the hair are different in size.
(10) Hair removal appearance: the tuft of the sheared fabric has the phenomenon of easy extraction and shedding.
The structure of the fabric is not properly designed, and the yarns that are shredded after being cut are too small.
(11) Corrugated appearance: There is a large area of ​​yarn in the fabric, and the movement is not in the original position, and the cloth surface is unevenly wave-curved. The warp yarn is much thinner than the weft yarn, or the warp yarn is a filamentous fiber, and the weft yarn is spun yarn, which is most likely to occur.
1. When dyeing with Wenqi dyeing machine, the bath ratio is too small, and the length of the input fabric is too much. The elliptical wheel turns too fast. The knot of the fabric is subjected to an abnormal tension.
2. When dyeing with a liquid flow dyeing machine, the bath is much larger than the small input. The jet of the nozzle is too strong.
3. The guide cloth and the opening roller are used for continuous production and the angle of expansion is too large.

  1. Cotton fiber has a good moisture absorption, skin can feel soft and comfortable.
  2. Cotton products are relatively good heat resistance, in daily use can be more casual washing printing and dyeing.
  3. Cotton fiber resistance to ALKALI, easy to wash, disinfection, but also conducive to the cotton textile dyeing, printing and various processes to produce more new clothing styles.
  4. Cotton fiber in flowers is natural fiber, contact with the skin will not have any irritation, but also do not have any negative effect, so we wear cotton products for a long time is also good for the body.

Cotton Fabric

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